Canistel – Pouteria campechiana


The Mayans knew the value of the Canistel back in 800 BC. They would gather the maturing fruit from the dense evergreen trees that shaded their thatch homes and place them in the cooled ashes of the fire. Here they would ripen to a golden yellow and would be used as a nourishing staple for everyday life. Today this ancient fruit continues to prove its worth. It is in the sapote family and is well adapted to south Florida. It will bloom and fruit throughout the year depending on the variety and makes a perfect landscape tree for the home garden. It is easy to grow, wind resistant, and tolerant of sandy or limestone soils. And, oh yes, it will provide bushels of fruit for the kitchen. It is delicious when mixed with milk products, making it perfect for milk shakes, ice creams and natural smoothies. The fruit can be eaten fresh of course, but you must wait for the fruit to fully ripen to a soft texture and peel away the thin yellow skin. Immature fruit have sticky latex that is harmless, but sticky and annoying. Added flavouring such as lime juice and honey may be added to taste. The skin and the flesh of the fruit is bright yellow and stable over time. Neither heating nor freezing will darker the bright yellow of the flesh and its texture makes it perfect for pies, milkshakes puddings and bread. No preservatives are needed; your kaniste pie or ice cream will stay bright yellow for as long as you need. Producing your own fruit in the home garden is easy. Look for grafted trees and not seedlings. Seedling trees will grow well, but they will take many years to fruit and will be of unknown and most likely inferior quality. Here are a few varieties recommended for planting:

Bruce is a large, uniform and attractive fruit shaped much like a Hersey’s chocolate kiss (only yellow). Fruiting occurs in two major waves during August to October and again from February to March. There are 2 to 3 seeds in each fruit and plenty to eat.

Fairchild is a compact tree with slightly curved more elongated fruit. The production is heavy and its timing is roughly the same as with the previous variety

Ross is distinctive among the others selections. The fruit are flattened like a hole-less doughnut and often is slightly fluted. The flesh is juicy and there are from 3 to 5 seeds in the fruit. The tree is slow growing and easy to control.

Canistel trees should be planted in the full sun and will require watering until they get established if there are inconsistent rains. Once established they are drought tolerant, partially losing their leaves with the onset of extreme drought. They respond well to mulching. Mulching improves water-holding capacity, nutrient retention and availability, and soil structure. The Canistel is adapted well to life in the Caribbean and can be grown in close proximity to the water. They are not salt tolerant, however and will die with salt water inundation or persistent salt spray. Young trees are cold-sensitive, and should be protected from frost or freezes.  

Fertilization is best done with three applications per year (spring, summer and autumn) of an 8-3-9 or other fruit tree formulation.  

Annual pruning of trees at a manageable height will provide ready access to the fruit.

Harvest: The fruit of canistel do not mature at the same time. They are yellow to orange when they are mature and it is the time to be picked. The fruit can be stored at room temperature for 3 to 10 days for ripening. As they soften, the skin texture changes from glossy to dull. The ripe fruit or the pulp can be preserved and stored by freezing it for up to 6 months.

Propagating  Those ultra dwarf Canistel trees were achieved using inverted root graft. Ref: R. Campbell

Sheryl   There is an excellent specimen in the Brisbane Botanic Gardens.

This fruit tree belongs to the Sapotaceae family. It is a native of Mexico and has been introduced into the Philippines and later to other Southeast Asian countries including Thailand where it has been found growing as a collectors plant in home gardens in some villages in the North and Northeastern regions.

Vernacular names
The English names are canistel, egg-fruit, and yellow sapote. Tiesa, canistel, (Philippines); lamut khamen, khe maa, to maa (Thailand).

General description
Lamut khamen is a medium sized evergreen tree 12-20 m tall and with a 25-60 cm wide trunk. The dark grey bark is finely ribbed and 4-5 mm thick. It is rich in white gummy latex in every part of the tree. The branches are mainly horizontal. The leaves whorl at the tips of the branches, are obovate-elliptic, 6-25 × 2.5-8 cm in size, glossy, bright green, and tapering towards both ends. The petioles are 5-25 cm long. Flowers are axillary borne in the lower leaves. They are solitary or clustered and fragrant. The pedicel is 5-12 mm long. The fruit is a spindle shaped to ovoid, obovoid or subglobose berry, often beaked at the apex with a thin, tough, waxy smooth, yellow skin. The flesh is more or less musky aromatic, moist or dryish, mealy and very sweet with 1-5 seeds. The glossy brown seeds are ovoid and 4-5 × 1.5-2 cm in size.

Propagation and Agronomy
Lamut khamen is usually propagated from seeds. The seeds lose viability quickly and should be germinated within a few days after removal from the fruit. Seedlings grow fast and may produce fruit in 3-4 years. Vegetative propagation such as grafting can be done and the grafted plants can produce fruit in 2-3 years. Trees tend to flower over an extended period, as the dry season progresses in the tropics. In some areas the trees may flower intermittently throughout the year. Fruit ripens 5-6 months after bloom.

Uses After removal of the skin and seeds, the fruit may be eaten as a sweet fruit, or as a vegetable with salt and pepper, lemon juice or mayonnaise. Blended with milk and nutmeg, it makes a highly nutritious cold beverage. It may be added to custards and to ice-cream before freezing. The flesh can be dehydrated, powdered and employed as a rich food additive. The edible portion constitutes up to 70 percent of fruit weight, the fruit is rich in carbohydrates, carotene and niacin.

Ref: (9 Feb 2012)

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